CANNABIS INSIDE

Research Overview

At Bedrocan, we strive to bridge the gap between patients’ need for cannabis and the quality standards of modern medicine. That’s the focus of our research.  We build strong academic and private research partnerships and conduct our own independent studies. In the end, we share what we learn.

Conditions

Bedrocan has forged a path for finding much-needed answers about whether there is an effective use for medicinal cannabis in all sorts of conditions. Currently a number of clinical trials are underway to assess whether our products can improve quality of life by alleviating symptoms.

Topic Country Organisations Product
Fibromyalgia and/or chronic pain Netherlands Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum (LUMC) Bedrocan
Palliative care cancer patients Australia St Vincent’s Sacred Heart Health Service and Calvary Mater Hospital Bedrobinol

Administration Forms

Cannabinoids act differently depending on how they are administered into the body (such as ingested in an oil or inhaled with a vaporizer). To understand these differences, we continue to study novel methods of administration (not smoking), as well as exploring what people are doing today (smoking). This type of research led us to perform the studies which allowed the Medic® Vaporizer to be approved as a medical device for cannabis inhalation.

Study Author Publication Year
Evaluation of a vaporizing device (Volcano) for the pulmonary administration of tetrahydrocannabinol. Hazekamp J. Pharm. Sci.; 95(6): 1308-1317 2006
Cannabis tea revisited: A systematic evaluation of the cannabinoid composition of cannabis tea. Hazekamp Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 113, 85–90 2007
Cannabis smoke condensate III: The cannabinoid content of vaporised Cannabis sativa. Pomahacova Inhalation Toxicology; 21(13): 1108–1112 2007
Vaporization as a smokeless cannabis delivery.
system: A pilot study.
Abrams Inhalation Toxicology; 21(13): 1108–1112 2007
Effect of intrapulmonary tetrahydrocannabinol administration in humans. Zuurman, Hazekamp J Psychopharmacol.; 22(7): 707-716 2008
Cannabinoid receptor 1 binding activity and quantitative analysis of Cannabis sativa L. smoke and vapor. Fischedick Chem. Pharm. Bull.; 58(2): 201-207 2010
Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial. Ware et al. CMAJ. Oct 5;182(14):E694-701 2010
Plasma and urine profiles of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol after cannabis smoking by male volunteers to estimate recent consumption by athletes. Brenneisen Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry; 396(7): 2493-2502 2010
Cannabis Oil: chemical evaluation of an upcoming cannabis-based medicine. Romano, Hazekamp Cannabinoids; 1(1): 1-11 2013
The medicinal use of cannabis and cannabinoids–an international cross-sectional survey on administration forms. Hazekamp, Ware, Muller-Vahl, Abrams, Grotenhermen J Psychoactive Drugs; 45(3): 199-210 2013
A protocol for the delivery of cannabidiol (CBD) and combined CBD and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by vaporisation. Solowij, Broyd, Van Hell, Hazekamp BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology, 15:58 2014

Social Research

Cannabis is used by many thousands of people to treat the symptoms of various health conditions, often outside the care and oversight of a physician. In our effort to connect the laboratory with the realities of patient use, we undertake research exploring the behaviors and preferences of those who use cannabis medicinally. We collect information on dosing, indications, administration forms, cannabis varieties, and more.

Study Author Publication Year
An evaluation of the quality of medicinal grade cannabis in the Netherlands. Hazekamp Cannabinoids; 1(1):1-9 2006
How accurate is potency testing? Gieringer, Hazekamp O’Shaughnessy’s. Autumn: 17 2011
The medicinal use of cannabis and cannabinoids–an international cross-sectional survey on administration forms. Hazekamp, Ware, Muller-Vahl, Abrams, Grotenhermen J Psychoactive Drugs; 45(3): 199-210 2013
The prevalence and incidence of medicinal cannabis on prescription in The Netherlands. Hazekamp, Heerdink Eur J Clin Pharmacol.; 69(8):1575-80 2013
Therapeutic Satisfaction and Subjective Effects of Different Strains of Pharmaceutical-Grade Cannabis Brunt, Van Genugten, Höhner, Van de Velde, Niesink Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology & Volume 34, Number 3 2014
A cross-sectional survey of medical cannabis users: Patterns of use and perceived efficacy. Sexton, Cuttler, Finnell, Mischley Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research Volume 1.1 2016

Cannabis Chemistry

We work to understand exactly what’s in our cannabis and what’s in the cannabis people use every day. The advantage of Bedrocan’s different cannabis strains is that they are research-grade and fully standardised. This means the results can be compared across many studies using the same varieties.

Study Author Publication Year
Preparative isolation of cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa by centrifugal partition chromatography. Hazekamp et al. Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies; 27(15): 2421-2439. 2004
Quantitative analysis of cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa Using 1H-NMR. Hazekamp Chem. Pharm. Bull.; 52(6): 718-721 2004
Chromatographic and spectroscopic data of cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa L. Hazekamp Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies; 28: 2361-2382 2005
Structure elucidation of the tetrahydrocannabinol complex with randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin. Hazekamp Eur. Journal Pharm. Science; 29: 340-347 2006
Medicinal cannabis does not influence the clinical pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and docetaxel. De Jong The Oncologist 12: 291–300 2007
Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of cannabinolic acid. Bastola, Hazekamp Planta Medica; 73: 1-3 2007
A qualitative and quantitative HPTLC densitometry method for the analysis of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. Fischedick, Hazekamp. Phytochemical Analysis; 20: 421–426  2009
Metabolic fingerprinting of Cannabis sativa L., Cannabinoids and terpenoids for chemotaxonomic and drug standardization purposes. Fischedick, Hazekamp Phytochemistry; 71(17-18): 2058-2073  2010
Cannabinoid receptor 1 binding activity and quantitative analysis of Cannabis sativa L. smoke and vapor. Fischedick Chem. Pharm. Bull.; 58(2): 201-207  2010
How accurate is potency testing? Gieringer, Hazekamp O’Shaughnessy’s. Autumn 2011: 17  2011
Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and hytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. Russo British Journal of
Pharmacology; Themed Issue: Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine, Part I
 2011
Cannabis – From cultivar to chemovar. Hazekamp, Fischedick Drug Testing and Analysis; 4: 660-667 2012
That which we call Indica, by any other name would smell as sweet. Erkelens, Hazekamp Cannabinoids 2014; 9(1): 9-15  2014
From cultivar to chemovar II – A metabolomics approach to cannabis classification. Hazekamp Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research Volume 1.1  2016

Reviews and Cognitive Effects

One of our goals is to collect and translate the existing science on cannabis into a form that people can understand and use. We also take on projects that seem interesting to us, and some that put the rumors about cannabis to the test.

Study Author Publication Year
Review on clinical studies with cannabis and cannabinoids 2005-2009. Hazekamp, Grotenhermen Cannabinoids; 5: 1-21 2010
Chemistry of cannabis. Hazekamp et al. In: Comprehensive Natural Products II Chemistry and Biology; Mander L, Lui HW, Eds. Elsevier, Oxford 2010; volume 3: 1033–1084 2010
Modulation of cognitive and emotional processing by cannabidiol: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex. Kowal, Hazekamp Frontiers in Human Neuroscience; 7: 147. 2013
Self-medication with cannabis. Hazekamp, Pappas In: Handbook of Cannabis. Pertwee R, Ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford; chapter 17  2014
Cannabis and creativity: Highly potent cannabis impairs divergent thinking in regular cannabis users. Kowal, Hazekamp et al. Psychopharmacology (Berl); 232:1123–1134 2014
Dose-dependent effects of cannabis on the neural correlates of error monitoring in frequent cannabis users. Kowal, Hazekamp et al. European Neuropsychopharmacology; volume 25, Issue 11, Pages 1943–1953 2015
Review on clinical studies with cannabis and cannabinoids 2010-2014. Kowal, Hazekamp, Grotenhermen Cannabinoids; 11 (special issue):1-18 2016
Thinking high: The impact of cannabis on human cognition. Kowal 2016
Cannabinoids medical implications. Schrot, Hubbard Annals of Medicine, 48:3, 128-141 2016
Cannabis in pain treatment clinical and research considerations. Savage The Journal of Pain, Vol 17, : pp 654-668 2016
The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids:
The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academies Press 2017

For more information, please download the booklet An Introduction to Medicinal Cannabis by dr Arno Hazekamp.

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