Cannabis Research

At Bedrocan we consider scientific cannabis research vital to progress medicinal cannabis to approved medicine status. To complement our cannabis plant and analytical research, we support clinical trials and offer our resources and experience to medicinal cannabis research projects worldwide. Below is a table of published research projects using Bedrocan cannabis products.

Clinical and psychopharmacological research with Bedrocan products

Topic Results Author Year
Syqe inhaler The Syqe Inhaler delivered precise and low THC doses to produce a dose-dependent analgesic effect in patients with neuropathic pain/complex-regional pain syndrome.


Almog et al. 2020
Syqe inhaler Pain intensity, 30–60 minutes following inhalations, was reported to be significantly lower than pre-inhalation. The use of the Syqe Inhaler during hospitalisation yielded high levels of patients and staff satisfaction with no complications. Vulfons et al. 2020
Fibromyalgia Adjunctive cannabis therapy offers a possible clinical advantage in fibromyalgia patients, especially in those with sleep dysfunctions. The clinical improvement inversely correlated with patient BMI. Giorgi et al 2020
Drug-resistant epilepsy All patients reported a reduction in seizure frequency and severity, and some reported improved mood, sleep quality, and general well-being without major side effects. Only one patient experienced one adverse event of mild intensity. Pane et al. 2020
False memory Cannabis consistently increases susceptibility to false memories. The results have implications for police, legal professionals, and policymakers with regard to the treatment of cannabis-intoxicated witnesses and suspects and the validity of their statements. Kloft et al. 2020
Fibromyalgia  Cannabis varieties containing THC caused a significant increase in pressure pain threshold relative to placebo. CBD inhalation increased THC plasma concentrations but diminished THC-induced analgesic effects, indicative of synergistic pharmacokinetic but antagonistic pharmacodynamic interactions of THC and CBD. Van de Donk et al. 2019
Brain resting-state functional connectivity THC disrupts the brain region involved in the subjective experience of THC intoxication. CBD restores the disruption caused by THC, which may explain the potential of CBD to treat disorders such as psychosis and addiction. Wall et al. 2019
Chronic conditions  Cannabis oil extract may be therapeutically effective and safe for the symptomatic treatment of some chronic diseases Palmieri et al. 2019
Neurotransmitter function THC elicits subjective and cognitive alterations via increased striatal dopaminergic activity and loss of corticostriatal connectivity, which is associated with an increase in striatal glutamate. Mason et al. 2019
Traffic safety The point in time after cannabis consumption seems to play an important role concerning driving safety: significantly more driving faults were committed directly after consumption. Three hours after consumption, no significant increase of driving faults was seen. Tank et al. 2019
Chronic pain Cannabis therapy, as an addition to traditional analgesic therapy, can be an efficacious tool to make more effective the management of chronic pain and its consequences on the functional and psychological dimensions. Poli et al. 2018
Cannabis use among Dutch patients Cannabis use among Dutch patients was analysed based on prescription data obtained from the Dutch Foundation for Pharmaceutical Statistics. The results showed that an increasing number of Dutch patients are using medicinal cannabis on prescription, while the average daily consumption has remained stable over many years. This suggests the absence of tolerance or cannabis abuse in this population. De Hoop et al. 2018
Impact marketing on the brain’s reward circuit Public advertising of alcohol or cannabis use elicits striatal activation in the brain’s reward circuit. Reduction of marketing would reduce brain exposure to reward cues that motivate substance use. de Sousa et al. 2017
Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome Cannabis may be effective in treatment-resistant TS patients with vocal blocking tics. Jakubovski et al. 2017
Sweet taste intensity perception and liking Administration of cannabis preparations at the low doses tested does not affect sweet taste intensity perception and liking, nor does it influence food preferences in humans. De Bruijn et al. 2017
Non-responders to Nabiximols Bedrocan was well tolerated and patients reported no psychoactive effects. A rescue strategy with Bedrocan accounts for a promising response rate in Nabiximols (Sativex) non-responders. Sacca et al. 2016
Adolescents vs adults Adolescents felt less stoned and reported fewer psychotomimetic symptoms than adults. Adults, but not adolescents, were more anxious and less alert during the cannabis session. Mokrysz et al. 2016
Decision-making and reward learning Cannabis acutely induced a transient amotivational state and CBD influenced the effects of THC on expected value. Lawn et al. 2016
Effects of alcohol and cannabis on subjective aggression Alcohol facilitated feelings of aggression whereas cannabis diminished aggressive feelings in heavy alcohol and regular cannabis users. De Sousa et al. 2016
Interference of cannabis and cocaine  Interference of cannabis and cocaine with cognitive impulse control and functional corticostriatal connectivity depends on a specific genotype. Ramaekers et al. 2016
Effects of cannabis on neurocognitive function Executive function, impulse control, attention, psychomotor function and subjective intoxication were significantly worse after cannabis administration relative to placebo. Ramaekers et al. 2016
Effects of cannabis and cocaine on error monitoring Cannabis and cocaine demonstrated opposing effects on the early and late phases of error monitoring. Spronk et al.  2016
Human cognition The research aimed at exploring how cannabis affects creative thinking, awareness of errors, and the neurotransmitter dopamine among regular cannabis users. It was discovered that cannabis does not improve creativity and that it can decrease error awareness and impair dopaminergic functioning. Kowal et al. 2016
Impairment of verbal memory Acetylcholine plays an important role in cannabis-induced memory impairment, whereas similar results for glutamate were not observed. Theunissen et al.  2015
Psychedelic symptoms Cannabis increased dissociation and psychedelic state, as well as fatigue, confusion, depression and anxiety, and decreased arousal, positive mood, vigor, friendliness, and elation. A broad association between trait impulsivity and psychedelic subjective drug experience appears to be absent. Van Wel et al. 2015
Effects of cannabis and cocaine on reversal learning Acute effects of cocaine and cannabis on reversal learning as a function of COMTand DRD2 genotype Spronk et al. 2015
Subjective effects Cannabis containing high percentages of THC had a strong effect on the rating of subjective effects. Hunault et al. 2014
Syqe inhaler This trial suggests the potential use of the Syqe Inhaler device as a smokeless delivery system of medicinal cannabis, producing a THC pharmacokinetic profile with low interindividual variation, achieving pharmaceutical standards for inhaled drugs. Eisenberg et al. 2014
Driving skills Cannabis smoking, even at low THC blood concentrations, decreases psychomotor skills and alters the activity of the brain networks involved in cognition. Battistella et al. 2013
Cannabinoid concentrations THC, and also THC-A, shows a sharp, high concentration peak just after smoking, with a rapid decrease in these levels within 3 hours. Fabritius et al. 2013
Psychomotor function and impulsivity Single doses of cannabis impaired psychomotor function and increased response errors during impulsivity tasks in heavy cannabis users. Van Wel et al. 2013
Heavy vs occasional cannabis users Heavy cannabis users develop tolerance to some of the impairing behavioral effects of cannabis. Theunissen et al. 2012
Neurocognitive effects of THC and alcohol  Heavy cannabis users develop tolerance to the impairing effects of THC on neurocognitive task performance. Yet, heavy cannabis users did not develop cross-tolerance to the impairing effects of alcohol, and the presence of the latter even selectively potentiated THC effects on measures of divided attention. Ramaekers et al. 2011
Cannabis abuse (doping) by athletes In addition to THC-COOH, the pharmacologically active THC and THC-OH should be used as target analytes for doping urine analysis. In the case of light cannabis use, this may allow the estimation of more recent consumption, probably influencing performance during competitions. Brenneisen et al. 2010
Heavy vs occasional cannabis users THC significantly impaired performance of occasional cannabis users on critical tracking, divided attention and the stop signal task. THC did not affect the performance of heavy cannabis users except in the stop signal task, i.e. stop reaction time increased, particularly at high THC concentrations. Ramaekers et al. 2009
Pharmacokinetics of THC The linear association between THC dose and THC serum concentration also applies for high THC doses. Hunault et al. 2008
Pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and docetaxel Coadministration of medicinal cannabis, as herbal tea, in cancer patients treated with irinotecan or docetaxel does not significantly influence the plasma pharmacokinetics of these drugs. Engels et al. & De Jong et al. 2007
Pharmacokinetics of THC Smoking cannabis with higher THC contents was associated with a dose-related increase of the serum concentrations of THC, physical effects, and psychomotor effects. Mensinga et al. 2006
Effects of cannabis on executive and motor function High potency marijuana consistently impaired executive function and motor control. Ramaekers et al. 2006
Effects of cannabis on driving skills Serum THC concentrations between 2 and 5 ng/ml establish the lower and upper range of a THC limit for impairment. Ramaekers et al. 2006

Analytical chemistry and methods development undertaken with Bedrocan products

Topic Results Author Year
Impact of lipid sources on oil preparations Medium-chain triglycerides oil could be considered a more suitable lipid source compared to olive oil involved in the extraction of medical cannabis for magistral preparations. Ramella et al. 2020
Variability among magistral oil preparations Quantitative variability of cannabinoids in magistral preparations might impact on the efficacy and safety of therapeutic cannabis. A standardised protocol is needed to guarantee a homogeneous product and patients’ therapeutic continuity. Bettiol et al. 2019
Quality evaluation of cannabis and oils A novel analytical procedure was set up, validated and applied for the in-depth profiling and fingerprinting of cannabinoids and terpenes in two medical grade varieties of cannabis and their macerated oils. Calvi et al. 2018
Variability in cannabis olive oil galenic preparations Results highlighted a wide variability in THC and CBD concentrations that justify the need for titration and open further questions about other pharmaceutical preparations without regulatory indication for this procedure cannabinoids concentration. Carcieri et al. 2018
Separation of phytocannabinoids The chromatographic system proved useful in the chemo- and enantio-selective separation of all the tested cannabinoid samples. Mazzoccanti et al. 2017
Gamma-Irradiation The effect of gamma-irradiation was limited to a reduction of some terpenes present in the cannabis, but keeping the terpene profile qualitatively the same. Hazekamp 2016
Chemical evaluation of cannabis oil Olive oil is the most optimal choice for preparation of cannabis oils for self-medication. Romano et al. 2012
Cannabis varieties compaired Cannabis constituents were identified that defined cannabis samples into distinct chemovar groups. Hazekamp et al. 2012
Cannabinoid receptor 1 binding Cannabinoids plus other components such as terpenoids and pyrolytic by-products were identified and quantified in all samples. There was no significant difference between receptor binding of pure THC compared to cannabis smoke and vapor. Fischedick et al. 2010
Metabolic fingerprinting Using principal component analysis each cannabis variety could be chemically discriminated. Fischedick et al. 2010
HPTLC densitometry method The HPTLC method is reproducible and accurate for the quantification of THC in cannabis. The method is also useful for the qualitative screening of the main neutral cannabinoids found in cannabis cultivars. Fischedick et al. 2009
Vaporized cannabinoid content The cannabinoids-byproducts ratio in the vapour obtained at 200°C and 230°C was significantly higher than in cannabis smoke. The worst ratio of cannabinoids-byproducts was obtained from vaporized cannabis at 170°C. Pomahacova et al. 2009
Influence of tobacco on THC levels Tobacco increased the vaporization efficiency of THC by as much as 45% under the tested conditions. Van der Kooy et al. 2008
Effect of different smoke preparation methods on THC levels The method of smoke production influences the amount of THC produced (e.g., longer puff length yielding a higher amount of THC). Van der Kooy et al. 2008
Cannabinoid composition of cannabis tea Moderate changes in the standard preparation protocol for cannabis tea do not result in dramatic changes in the composition of the tea. Hazekamp et al. 2007
Quality evaluation of Dutch cannabis Medicinal cannabis offered through the pharmacies is more reliable and safer for the health of medical users of cannabis, than coffeeshop cannabis. Hazekamp 2006
Evaluation of the Volcano The Volcano is a safe and effective cannabinoid delivery system. The final pulmonal uptake of THC is comparable to the smoking of cannabis, while avoiding the respiratory disadvantages of smoking. Hazekamp et al. 2006
Chromatographic and spectroscopic data Results make it possible to positively identify the major cannabinoids found in cannabis. Hazekamp et al. 2005
Quantitative analysis of cannabinoids (1H-NMR method) The analysis method allows rapid and simple quantitation of cannabinoids. Hazekamp et al. 2004
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