Research Overview

At Bedrocan, we strive to bridge the gap between patients’ need for cannabis and the quality standards of modern medicine. That’s the focus of our research.  We build strong academic and private research partnerships and conduct our own independent studies. In the end, we share what we learn.


Bedrocan has forged a path for finding much-needed answers about whether there is an effective use for medicinal cannabis in all sorts of conditions. Currently a number of clinical trials are underway to assess whether our products can improve quality of life by alleviating symptoms.

Topic Country Organisation Product
Fibromyalgia and/or chronic pain Netherlands Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum (LUMC) Bedrocan
Palliative care cancer patients Australia St Vincent’s Sacred Heart Health Service and Calvary Mater Hospital Bedrobinol

Administration Forms

Cannabinoids act differently depending on how they are administered into the body (such as ingested in an oil or inhaled with a vaporizer). To understand these differences, we continue to study novel methods of administration (not smoking), as well as exploring what people are doing today (smoking). This type of research led us to perform the studies which allowed the Volcano Medic® vaporizer to be approved as a medical device for cannabis inhalation.

Study Author Publication Year
Evaluation of a vaporizing device (Volcano) for the pulmonary administration of tetrahydrocannabinol Hazekamp J. Pharm. Sci.; 95(6): 1308-1317 2006
Cannabis tea revisited: A systematic evaluation of the cannabinoid composition of cannabis tea Hazekamp Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 113, 85–90 2007
Cannabis smoke condensate III: The cannabinoid content of vaporised Cannabis sativa Pomahacova Inhalation Toxicology; 21(13): 1108–1112 2007
Effect of intrapulmonary tetrahydrocannabinol administration in humans Zuurman, Hazekamp J Psychopharmacol.; 22(7): 707-716 2008
Cannabis Smoke Condensate I: The Effect of Different Preparation Methods on Tetrahydrocannabinol Levels Van der Kooy Inhalation Toxicology; 20:9, 801-804 2008
Cannabis Smoke Condensate II: Influence of Tobacco on Tetrahydrocannabinol Levels Van der Kooy Inhalation Toxicology; xx:1–4 2008
Cannabinoid receptor 1 binding activity and quantitative analysis of Cannabis sativa L. smoke and vapor Fischedick Chem. Pharm. Bull.; 58(2): 201-207 2010
Plasma and urine profiles of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol after cannabis smoking by male volunteers to estimate recent consumption by athletes Brenneisen Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry; 396(7): 2493-2502 2010
Cannabis Oil: chemical evaluation of an upcoming cannabis-based medicine Romano, Hazekamp Cannabinoids; 1(1): 1-11 2013
The medicinal use of cannabis and cannabinoids–an international cross-sectional survey on administration forms Hazekamp, Ware, Muller-Vahl, Abrams, Grotenhermen J Psychoactive Drugs; 45(3): 199-210 2013
A protocol for the delivery of cannabidiol (CBD) and combined CBD and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by vaporisation Solowij, Broyd, Van Hell, Hazekamp BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology, 15:58 2014

Social Research

Cannabis is used by many thousands of people to treat the symptoms of various health conditions, often outside the care and oversight of a physician. In our effort to connect the laboratory with the realities of patient use, we undertake research exploring the behaviours and preferences of those who use cannabis medicinally. We collect information on dosing, indications, administration forms, cannabis varieties, and more.

Study Author Publication Year
An evaluation of the quality of medicinal grade cannabis in the Netherlands Hazekamp Cannabinoids; 1(1):1-9 2006
How accurate is potency testing? Gieringer, Hazekamp O’Shaughnessy’s. Autumn: 17 2011
The medicinal use of cannabis and cannabinoids–an international cross-sectional survey on administration forms Hazekamp, Ware, Muller-Vahl, Abrams, Grotenhermen J Psychoactive Drugs; 45(3): 199-210 2013
The prevalence and incidence of medicinal cannabis on prescription in The Netherlands Hazekamp, Heerdink Eur J Clin Pharmacol.; 69(8):1575-80 2013
Therapeutic Satisfaction and Subjective Effects of Different Strains of Pharmaceutical-Grade Cannabis Brunt, Van Genugten, Höhner, Van de Velde, Niesink Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology & Volume 34, Number 3 2014
Medicinal Cannabis on Prescription in The Netherlands: Statistics for 2003–2016 De Hoop, Heerdink, Hazekamp Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, Volume 3.1 2018

Cannabis Chemistry

We work to understand exactly what’s in our cannabis and what’s in the cannabis people use every day. The advantage of Bedrocan’s different cannabis strains is that they are research-grade and fully standardised. This means the results can be compared across many studies using the same varieties.

Study Author Publication Year
Preparative isolation of cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa by centrifugal partition chromatography Hazekamp et al. Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies; 27(15): 2421-2439. 2004
Quantitative analysis of cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa Using 1H-NMR Hazekamp Chem. Pharm. Bull.; 52(6): 718-721 2004
Chromatographic and spectroscopic data of cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa L. Hazekamp Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies; 28: 2361-2382 2005
Structure elucidation of the tetrahydrocannabinol complex with randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin Hazekamp Eur. Journal Pharm. Science; 29: 340-347 2006
Medicinal cannabis does not influence the clinical pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and docetaxel De Jong The Oncologist 12: 291–300 2007
Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of cannabinolic acid Bastola, Hazekamp Planta Medica; 73: 1-3 2007
A qualitative and quantitative HPTLC densitometry method for the analysis of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. Fischedick, Hazekamp. Phytochemical Analysis; 20: 421–426  2009
Metabolic fingerprinting of Cannabis sativa L., Cannabinoids and terpenoids for chemotaxonomic and drug standardization purposes Fischedick, Hazekamp Phytochemistry; 71(17-18): 2058-2073  2010
Cannabinoid receptor 1 binding activity and quantitative analysis of Cannabis sativa L. smoke and vapor Fischedick Chem. Pharm. Bull.; 58(2): 201-207  2010
How accurate is potency testing? Gieringer, Hazekamp O’Shaughnessy’s. Autumn 2011: 17  2011
Cannabis – From cultivar to chemovar Hazekamp, Fischedick Drug Testing and Analysis; 4: 660-667 2012
That which we call Indica, by any other name would smell as sweet Erkelens, Hazekamp Cannabinoids 2014; 9(1): 9-15  2014
From cultivar to chemovar II – A metabolomics approach to cannabis classification Hazekamp Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research Volume 1.1  2016
Evaluating the Effects of Gamma-Irradiation for Decontamination of Medicinal Cannabis Hazekamp Frontiers in Pharmacology; 7, article 108  2016

Reviews and Cognitive Effects

One of our goals is to collect and translate the existing science on cannabis into a form that people can understand and use. We also take on projects that seem interesting to us, and some that put the rumours about cannabis to the test.

Study Author Publication Year
Review on clinical studies with cannabis and cannabinoids 2005-2009 Hazekamp, Grotenhermen Cannabinoids; 5: 1-21 2010
Chemistry of cannabis Hazekamp et al. In: Comprehensive Natural Products II Chemistry and Biology; Mander L, Lui HW, Eds. Elsevier, Oxford 2010; volume 3: 1033–1084 2010
Modulation of cognitive and emotional processing by cannabidiol: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex Kowal, Hazekamp Frontiers in Human Neuroscience; 7: 147. 2013
Self-medication with cannabis Hazekamp, Pappas In: Handbook of Cannabis. Pertwee R, Ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford; chapter 17  2014
Cannabis and creativity: Highly potent cannabis impairs divergent thinking in regular cannabis users Kowal, Hazekamp et al. Psychopharmacology (Berl); 232:1123–1134 2014
Dose-dependent effects of cannabis on the neural correlates of error monitoring in frequent cannabis users Kowal, Hazekamp et al. European Neuropsychopharmacology; volume 25, Issue 11, Pages 1943–1953 2015
Review on clinical studies with cannabis and cannabinoids 2010-2014 Kowal, Hazekamp, Grotenhermen Cannabinoids; 11 (special issue):1-18 2016
Thinking high: The impact of cannabis on human cognition Kowal 2016

Independent Human Research Using Bedrocan Products

Our products are being used by different independent researchers internationally. We closely observe emerging human research, since we are always interested in obtaining new knowledge on how our cannabis varieties affect people.

Study Author Publication Year
High-Potency Marijuana Impairs Executive Function and Inhibitory Motor Control Ramaekers et al. Neuropsychopharmacology 31, 2296–2303 2006
Cognition and motor control as a function of delta-9-THC concentration in serum and oral fluid: Limits of impairment Ramaekers et al. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 85, 114–122 2006
Dubbel-blind, gerandomiseerd, placebogecontroleerd, 4-weg gekruist onderzoek naar de farmacokinetiek en effecten van cannabis Mensinga et al. RIVM rapport 267002001/2006 2006
Medicinal Cannabis Does Not Influence the Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Irinotecan and Docetaxel Engels et al. The Oncologist; 12:291–300 2007
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) serum concentrations and pharmacological effects in males after smoking a combination of tobacco and cannabis containing up to 69 mg THC Hunault et al. Journal of Psychopharmacology 201:171–181 2008
Neurocognitive performance during acute THC intoxication in heavy and occasional cannabis users Ramaekers et al. Journal of Psychopharmacology 23: 266 2009
Plasma and urine profiles of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol after cannabis smoking by male volunteers to estimate recent consumption by athletes Brenneisen et al. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2010
Tolerance and cross-tolerance to neurocognitive effects of THC and alcohol in heavy cannabis users Ramaekers et al. Psychopharmacology 214:391–401 2011
Neurophysiological functioning of occasional and heavy cannabis users during THC intoxication Theunissen et al. Psychopharmacology 220:341–350 2012
Single doses of THC and cocaine decrease proficiency of impulse control in heavy cannabis users Van Wel et al. British Journal of Pharmacology 170 1410–1420 2013
Comparison of cannabinoid concentrations in oral fluid and whole blood between occasional and regular cannabis smokers prior to and after smoking a cannabis joint Fabritius et al. Anal Bioanal Chem 405:9791–9803 2013
Weed or Wheel! fMRI, Behavioural, and Toxicological Investigations of How Cannabis Smoking Affects Skills Necessary for Driving Battistella et al. PLOS ONE, Volume 8, Issue 1, e52545 2013
The Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, Safety, and Ease of Use of a Novel Portable Metered-Dose Cannabis Inhaler in Patients With Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Phase 1a Study Eisenberg et al. Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy; 28:216–225 2014
Acute subjective effects after smoking joints containing up to 69 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in recreational users: a randomized, crossover clinical trial Hunault  Psychopharmacology 2014
Acute effects of cocaine and cannabis on reversal learning as a function of COMTand DRD2 genotype Spronk et al. Psychopharmacology 2015
Psychedelic symptoms of cannabis and cocaine use as a function of trait impulsivity Van Wel et al. Journal of Psychopharmacology, Vol. 29(3) 324–334 2015
Rivastigmine but not vardenafil reverses cannabis-induced impairment of verbal memory in healthy humans Theunissen et al. Psychopharmacology, 232:343–353  2015
Opposite effects of cannabis and cocaine on performance monitoring Spronk et al. European Neuropsychopharmacology  2016
Cannabis and cocaine decrease cognitive impulse control and functional corticostriatal connectivity in drug users with low activity DBH genotypes Ramaekers et al. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 10:1254–1263 2016
Cannabis and tolerance: acute drug impairment as a function of cannabis use history Ramaekers et al. Sci. Rep. 6, 26843 2016
Subjective aggression during alcohol and cannabis intoxication before and after aggression exposure De Sousa et al. Psychopharmacology (2016) 233:3331–3340 2016
Acute and chronic effects of cannabinoids on effort-related decision-making and reward learning: an evaluation of the cannabis ‘amotivational’ hypotheses Lawn et al. Psychopharmacology, 233:3537–3552 2016
Are adolescents more vulnerable to the harmful effects of cannabis than adults? A placebo-controlled study in human males Mokrysz et al. Citation: Transl Psychiatry, 6, e961 2016
Explorative Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Intervention Study with Low Doses of Inhaled Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Reveals No Effect on Sweet Taste Intensity Perception and Liking in Humans De Bruijn et al. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research Volume 2.1 2017
Contact Us

We're not around right now. But you can send us an email and we'll get back to you, asap.

Not readable? Change text.

Start typing and press Enter to search