Vaporizing presents minimal risk of second-hand exposure

Hospital staff or researchers are at low risk of exposure to patient’s exhaled cannabis vapour. An Australian study demonstrated staff who administer vaporized cannabinoid medication to patients in a clinical environment will not be exposed to THC. The active substance THC was not found in the blood after staff had been exposed to environmental vapours.

A vaporizer medical device is considered to be a safe administration method for patients. There is no exposure to harmful substances like from smoking. The medicinal effects occur sooner with vaporizing than with other administration forms, because the cannabinoids are absorbed into the blood almost immediately after inhalation. It is also a user-friendly method for patients who struggle with swallowing. However, until recently there was little or no knowledge of whether the exhaled vapour would be harmful to other people in the same environment. In other words, could someone else be exposed to THC?

The conclusion is therefore that vaporizing is safe for staff who administer medicinal cannabis to patients. However, a more comprehensive study of this subject is warranted. A study including more participants, room sizes, cannabis varieties, and types of vaporizers would be beneficial.

Denmark permits medicinal cannabis, but doctors are reluctant

Since 1st January 2018, cannabis for medicinal use is permitted in Denmark. How did the first weeks work out? If we are to believe the stories in the media, Denmark will be cultivating cannabis on a major scale next year. Doctors on the other hand are sceptical, because there is insufficient scientific evidence. Meanwhile, a public pain clinic is unable to meet demand and patients are on a one-year waiting list.

Odense, the third largest city in Denmark, aims to become the European capital of cannabis cultivation. That was the heading of a newspaper article from early 2018 about the developments in what is known as the centre of Danish horticulture. At the end of last year, a local tomato grower and a hemp grower entered into cooperation with two major Canadian cannabis producers. The Canadians bring money and knowledge, whilst the growers supply the greenhouses and the land. Peppers and orchids are being exchanged for ‘green gold’ and thousands of square metres of old greenhouses are transformed into high-tech businesses.

Cannabis cultivation

According to the Danish medicines agency, which issues licences for cannabis cultivation, 12 Danish businesses have received permission to start cultivating. They may only do so within the context of a four-year pilot project. After two years there will be an interim evaluation and the Danish government will decide whether to continue the project or not. According to Henrik Uth of the company CannGros, currently the only importer of medicinal cannabis in Denmark, obtaining a growers licence does not mean you can start selling medicinal cannabis. “In principle, you just need to present a plan to the authorities. You don’t even need facilities. It will be interesting to see how the production, and the regulation on quality control on Danish grown medicinal cannabis, will come together. There is still little clarity on that point.”

Tina Horsted & Jens Thau

Either way, government rules prescribe that the new growers must be able to produce standardised and consistent cannabis. The levels of active substances must be the same for every harvest. This has been Bedrocan’s speciality for years, and for doctors who wish to prescribe medicinal cannabis it is simply essential. Pain specialist Tina Horsted is familiar with the issue. She runs a pain clinic in Copenhagen where she treats 90 patients a day. Tina Horsted comments:  “Standardisation is essential. Patients must have the guarantee that with every inhalation, drop of cannabis oil or capsule they receive the same amount of THC or CBD. It is about safety and quality. That makes the difference between going to a doctor or obtaining cannabis on the black market.”

In Denmark, Tina Horsted is the only doctor who specialises in prescribing medicinal cannabis. Two years ago, she started the public pain clinic Min Smerte. A loophole in the law enabled her to prescribe cannabis to patients, because cannabis was considered to be a natural medicine. “It had to be a hand-written prescription and the end product had to be compounded by a pharmacist”, commented Horsted. She found one pharmacist who was prepared to produce oil and capsules with cannabis components. He lawfully obtained the CBD-containing cannabis from Austria and the THC was added separately.

At the moment, she treats 1,200 patients in her clinic who suffer from chronic pain, MS, RA and cancer. The change in legislation now enables her to prescribe Bedrocan products lawfully and everything is done electronically. In principle, a patient can take a valid prescription to any Danish pharmacy. At the moment, the Danish government has permitted two products – Bedrocan® and Bediol®, which are the most commonly prescribed cannabis products in the world.

Danish doctors

However, a majority of Danish doctors opposes the change in legislation. They argue there is insufficient scientific evidence to support the effect of cannabis. There is also little known about the correct dose, side effects and possible risks of combining cannabis with other medication. Danish patients are struggling to find a doctor who is prepared to write the prescription. Jens Thau is in charge of Clinic Horsted that is privately run and he is confronted with the doctors’ reluctance on a daily basis. “Each day we receive some 20 calls from patients all over the country who do not receive any assistance from their own doctor.” These patients, except for terminal cancer patients, end up on a one-year waiting list because of the high demand. “According to Danish rules we may only employ one doctor in our clinic and that is Tina.” The costs of treatment in the public clinic are reimbursed in full by the Danish government. Patients who do not want to wait, or who cannot wait, can attend the private clinic that has an open surgery every Friday. Patients pay for their treatment themselves or have it reimbursed by additional insurance. Thau comments: “Most pain patients do not have insurance, they are 65 or older and often did heavy labour. That is the saddest part of the story.”


The couple Hosted and Thau are  convinced of the beneficial effect of cannabis and in their evenings they travel around the country to convince Danish doctors and parliamentarians. A book about their experiences with prescribing medicinal cannabis, which will be published this year, is also intended to contribute to more knowledge transfer. Until then doctors will have to make do with the guidelines of the Danish medicines agency, which are available online. Information about the two Bedrocan products that have been included in the trial, comes from importer Uth. “We are bound by rules and may not provide information that encourages the sales of the cannabis product. The only thing that is permitted is a general leaflet with advice about administration and doses. It is in high demand.” As in the Netherlands, the recommendation is vaporizing with a vaporizer or drinking tea. Smoking is not recommended due to the ‘risk of lung and airways infections’ according to Danish guidelines. It is also recommended to start with a low dose. According to the Danish government, it is ultimately the doctor who decides on the dose and the correct usage method.

Bedrocan stays away from recreational use

Before the turn of the millennium ‘producing cannabis of pharmaceutical quality’ was a self-imposed task. Today it is nothing less than a tour de force for Bedrocan. Operating across the globe, Bedrocan is keeping abreast of the growing demand for the highest quality medicinal cannabis.

The will to move cannabis to the level of a licensed medicine came from Tjalling Erkelens, founder and chairman/CEO of Bedrocan. From the start he envisaged a specialised cultivation process. He made a three-fold promise to the Dutch government (in 2003 – ed.) – to be patient inspired, science driven, and regulatory compliant. Since then, Bedrocan has been the sole supplier to the Dutch prescriber-pharmacy medicinal cannabis programme.

“The cannabis varieties we supply now are based on years of knowledge and experience, and on patient need,” clarifies Erkelens. “In conjunction with our client, the Dutch government, we translated that into a number of standardised varieties of cannabis flos (the whole dried flower). These days there is more and more scientific research into the effect of the active substances in cannabis on the human body, to ensure the approach to medicinal cannabis moves from empirical and anecdotal to scientifically sound. We support this development wholeheartedly. Bedrocan continues to undertake and support scientific research. The same applies to studies of administration methods, such as our patient-friendly vaporizer. Input from patients continues to be essential, because they are the reason for our efforts. We have now come to a point where we initiate and support clinical trials. If your aim is to have cannabis registered as medicine, you can only achieve that on the basis of scientific evidence.”

Recreational use

In the area of compliance, Bedrocan has always taken a clear course. Erkelens continues: “From the start we have worked in accordance with applicable legislation and regulations. That is beyond dispute as far as we’re concerned.

Bedromedic® - Bedrocan's patient-friendly vaporizer

Outside the Netherlands, we only wish to focus on countries where the production and use of medicinal cannabis is enshrined in law. We continue to focus on the medicinal application of cannabis; intended for patients.

We are never party to the global discussion about legalisation, we stay away from recreational use, and only seek to cooperate with partners that share our vision of compliance.”

This choice means that Bedrocan and its licensees are bound by increasingly stringent requirements in the area of quality and safety. Compliance, again. This time a commitment to pharmaceutical requirements. “Fair enough”, says Erkelens. “We are a pharmaceutical company. So you need to comply with strict requirements and be tested for those. That is why we were the first manufacturer to have the entire production process – including cultivation – good manufacturing practice (GMP) certified. It is why we invest in people, equipment and processes in that area.”

Cannabinoid therapeutic products

Globally there is increasing interest in the medicinal application of cannabis. Not only as pharmaceutical cannabis flos for vaporization, but also as an active ingredient for cannabinoid therapeutic products. Bedrocan keeps pace with those developments.

In 2016, we started with controlled cultivation, and that led to a larger, more streamlined organisation, where botany joins forces with pharmaceutical knowledge. In 2017, a new state of the art production site was commissioned. “This enables us to meet the growing demand in the Netherlands and abroad”, continues Erkelens, who realises that the interest in medicinal cannabis will increase across the world.

What is medicinal cannabis?

When medicinal cannabis has to be defined, there is always a discussion about the difference between the medicinal and recreational use of cannabis. The Dutch Office for Medicinal Cannabis (OMC) has final responsibility for the medical and scientific use of cannabis in the Netherlands. The OMC describes medicinal cannabis on its website as follows: “Cannabis distributed by pharmacies is of pharmaceutical quality and complies with the strictest requirements. This cannabis is intended for medicinal use only. That is why we refer to medicinal cannabis.”

It is all about cannabis that is meant for people who can’t function properly due to a certain condition. Often these people have a low level of resistance and that makes product safety crucial. The cannabis that is supplied by the OMC to pharmacies in the Netherlands and exported to some countries, is produced by Bedrocan Nederland in accordance with strict protocols in a standardised, predictable process. That is the only way to standardise the product – the same amount of active substances per variety in each and every batch. This happens in a conditioned environment and – from cultivation to packaging – in accordance with the strict requirements of good manufacturing practice (GMP). The cannabis is free from contamination and is tested for this continuously, as for its standardisation.

“The number of countries that are active in the area is increasing and that is all to the good. However, it is important that we express clearly who we are, what we do, and why we do it this way. Anyone can address us on that.”

New vaporizer tested by patients

A group of some 20 Dutch patients is about to test the new Bedrocan vaporizer. Recently, a call was made in the Dutch media and through patient associations. More than 70 patients have said they would like to participate. The purpose of the study is to collect feedback about, among other things, the user-friendliness of this medical device. The vaporizer will be marketed under the name Bedromedic®.

With a Bedromedic it is possible to inhale Bedrocan’s medicinal cannabis products safely. Heating cannabis releases vapours with active components. The vapour is inhaled by means of a mouthpiece and absorbed into the body via the lungs. It does not involve any tobacco. Temperatures are lower than during smoking, which prevents the release of harmful substances that are produced during burning.

The study is carried out by Bedrocan’s own research department, which screens patients in advance. Participants must have medicinal cannabis from Bedrocan prescribed by a doctor. It is also important that a participant has at least six months of experience with using cannabis as medication. Experience with using vaporizers is not necessary. Participants have the Bedromedic® vaporizer sent to their home and can try it out in their home environment. Afterwards, they complete a comprehensive online questionnaire.

Discourse with doctors – Dr Jürgen Fleisch provides his insights…

Insights from experienced health professionals prescribing cannabinoids.

There is a place for cannabinoids in the therapeutic toolbox. So how should they be prescribed? Discourse with doctors is a series of interviews with experienced doctors prescribing cannabinoids. This article highlights prescribing realities and strategies to improve patient safety, dispels some myths, and aims to encourage self-driven inquiry.

Trained as an anaesthesiologist in Germany, Dr Fleisch then undertook a fellowship in pain medicine (Portland, Oregon).

He now practices anaesthesiology and pain therapy in Holland at the Leiden University Medical Centre.

For the last decade, his close cooperation with the department of oncology means he regularly treats patients experiencing pain from cancer.

Dr Jürgen Fleisch

Do you have any advice for doctors starting out prescribing?

My advice for clinicians who are starting to prescribe cannabinoids is to stick to specific indications where there is a solid foundation of evidence for its use, e.g. multiple sclerosis, patients experiencing central neuropathic pain, or cancer patients. This allows us to gain experience with the effects of this medication in a specific patient population.

Recreational cannabis users are, in my opinion, not a good patient category to start with. They may put considerable pressure on the clinician to prescribe for dubious indications.

Prescribing experience

How long have you prescribed cannabinoid therapeutics?

I have prescribed cannabinoids, mainly for patients with cancer, since I started working here in Holland ten years ago.

Can you describe a typical patient who you would prescribe products containing cannabinoids?

There are two typical types of patients where I would initiate cannabinoid therapeutics. These are in patients with:

  • advanced cancer experiencing loss of appetite and possibly nausea and vomiting. Often many other medications have been tried before.
  • central neuropathic pain (after unsuccessful trials of more common medications).

Prescribing cannabinoid therapeutics

How is prescribing cannabinoid therapeutics different to prescribing other medicines?

They are like any other medicine. However, many patients will have an opinion about cannabis [and cannabinoid products]. For some it has a rather negative connotation as being a substance of abuse.

What are the key benefits of cannabinoids as a therapeutic product?

There are three main advantages of cannabinoid therapeutics in general over other medicines used in my field of pain medicine, these include that:

  • there are analgesic effects on neuropathic pain syndromes and, depending on the medicine type, anti-emetic and appetite stimulating effects. This is especially important for cancer patients with pain.
  • there are no known organ damaging side effects in the adult patient. As compared to, for example, those linked with using NSAID’s.
  • some cannabis flos variants have a soothing effect, which some patients greatly appreciate.

What do you think are prescribing practices that improve patient outcomes?

For patients with no experience using cannabinoid products, the possible psychological side effects can be distressing. In order to avoid this we advise patients’ to start with low dosage and use the medicine in a quiet and relaxing environment.

In our experience, it is advantageous to prescribe cannabis flos as an inhalational agent, administered by vaporization, as it creates more rapid analgesic effects and has a more reliable absorption profile.

Are there any special considerations you make when prescribing a ‘herbal’ medicine (cannabis flos)?

With cannabis flos, the prescribing clinician needs to be aware that in many countries the standards are different with respect to ‘regular’ medicines: concerning the quality control of the active ingredient, and toxicological contamination.

What is cannabinoid therapeutics?

Medicinal cannabis is a term used to describe the use of cannabis to treat or manage illness. It hails from a time when the products used where typically marijuana and patients smoked joints. Since that time, there have been major developments in cultivation techniques, product quality and controls. Today, the sympathetic regulatory environment favours standardised products (e.g., Bedrocan cannabis flos, Sativex) and safer modes of administration (sublingual, oral and vaporization). A prescriber-pharmacy model now offers patients better communication of risks and benefits, and the safety of health professional oversight. Standardised products and clinical research means plant-based products are closer to achieving full medicine registration. The use of the term ‘medicinal cannabis’ in these circumstances seems redundant.

In this article, we talk about the therapeutic use of cannabinoids. The class of medicines containing cannabinoids (e.g., THC and CBD) and other chemical compounds secreted by cannabis plant (e.g., terpenes) that are intended to be used in, or on human beings for a therapeutic purpose. This change in terminology from ‘medicinal cannabis’ to ‘cannabinoid therapeutics’ reflects our knowledge and understanding of the endocannabinoid system, the cannabinoid receptors, endogenous (human) cannabinoids, and exogenous (plant) cannabinoids.

For more information, please download the booklet An Introduction to Medicinal Cannabis by Dr Arno Hazekamp.

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Using cannabis flos originating from controlled producers means patients are assured there is no biological or toxicological contamination.

In the Netherlands cannabis flos is produced under strict quality conditions by the government licenced company Bedrocan.

Administration by vaporization

Aside from eliminating the harms from smoking, what are the benefits of administration by vaporization?

With vaporization cannabis flos is heated to a specific temperature without burning it. Cannabinoids and terpenes are released in a vapour which is directly inhaled.

There are three main advantages of administration by vaporization is that it:

  • allows for exact dosing,
  • leads to a rapid effect, and
  • avoids the disadvantages of smoking (i.e., no tar, ammonia, carbon monoxide).

What do patients say about the administration of cannabis flos by vaporization?

Using vaporized cannabis flos is the preferred means of use by most patients, especially when compared with an oral application. This is due to the more rapid effect by inhalation.

For some years the vaporizers where reimbursed by Dutch health insurance, thereby eliminating the threshold of a financial burden for the patient.

Patient considerations

Thinking about a first consultation with a patient, how do you start a conversation about cannabinoid therapeutics?

There are two types of discussion around the use of cannabinoids:

The elderly, cannabis naive patient:

An elderly cancer patient may be hesitant to use cannabis as a medication. This likely is related to prejudices about cannabis being a product for ‘recreational’ use. With these patients, I rarely discuss the use of these medicines during a first consult. If the patient is eligible and several other therapies did not provide sufficient pain relief, I then mention cannabinoid therapeutics as a possible option. This allows the patient and his/her family to contemplate that treatment option until the next appointment.

The experienced patient:

There may be patients who have extensive experience using cannabis recreationally. They may be actively looking into cannabinoid therapeutics as a potential adjunct to their pain therapy. These patients emphasise the ineffectiveness or side effects of other therapies, and may push clinicians towards prescribing a cannabis product. With these patients the topic must be discussed fully during a first consult. The main question during this consult is are they at all eligible to receive cannabinoid products.

Are you aware of patients experiencing interactions with cannabinoid therapeutics and other medicines?

Indeed, we do see patients who experience drug interactions using cannabinoids alongside other CNS depressant medications (e.g. opioids).

Sedative effects can be enhanced especially in the geriatric population. Severe drowsiness and hallucinations can also be provoked.

Aside from drug interactions, the smoking of cannabis is related to an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Cannabis as a trigger of myocardial infarction is plausible, given its cardio-stimulatory effects, which may cause ischemia in susceptible hearts. Carboxy-hemoglobinemia from the smoking of cannabis may also contribute to ischemia. Smoking is never recommended.

Do you encounter diversion for misuse or the abuse of cannabinoids? How do you identify this issue in your practice?

During the period when Dutch health insurers widely reimbursed medicinal cannabis, we had frequent discussions with patients, best described as ‘recreational users’, about their eligibility.

Patients of this group, who were already using large amounts of cannabis, were requesting access for rather dubious indications. Some patients were seeing it as a cheap way to get a ‘recreational drug’ which they were already abusing.

How do you deal with diversion for misuse or abuse in your practice?

This patient group can be quite challenging. They may put pressure on clinicians to prescribe cannabinoids as the only means to relieve their pain. Mentioning misuse and abuse can provoke abrupt reactions.

Clinicians should be coherent in prescribing cannabinoids only for indications with enough evidence for beneficial effects (e.g. analgesic for neuropathic pain, appetite stimulation etc). Misuse and abuse should be discussed openly if they become apparent.

Bedrocan releases new corporate movie

Bedrocan has for decades been a household name as a brand and company when it comes to the development and production of standardised, medicinal cannabis of pharmaceutical quality. Based on the knowledge that a picture is worth a thousand words, a short film has been made showing the unique combination of growing, harvesting and production (in accordance with good manufacturing practice) and research & development. The film explains in just three minutes and thirty one seconds precisely what we mean by ‘beyond pioneering’.



Bedrocan - beyond pioneering

New Dutch Bedrocan production site GMP certified

As of November 2017, the new Dutch Bedrocan production facility officially manufactures in accordance with good manufacturing practice (GMP). This guarantees that Bedrocan meets international pharmaceutical quality and safety requirements.

It is the second time that a Bedrocan production site has been made compliant with the GMP requirements for an active pharmaceutical ingredient. Earlier this year, the manufacturer of standardised medicinal cannabis acquired a GMP certificate for the existing Dutch production site. This made Bedrocan the first manufacturer in the world where the entire production process – including cultivation – complies with the international requirements imposed on the production of pharmaceutical raw materials and end products.

On 15 September 2017, the new Bedrocan production site harvested the first batch of standardised medicinal cannabis and handed it over to the Office for Medicinal Cannabis. The new site, outfitted with state-of-the-art finishings and fittings, has a surface area of 10,000 m2, half of which is in use at the moment. With this significant increase in production capacity, Bedrocan meets the growing demand for standardised medicinal cannabis of pharmaceutical quality.



No clear evidence of ancestry differences between Sativa- and Indica-labelled cannabis

Cannabis labelled ‘Sativa’ and ‘Indica’ may not come from distinct ancestries, according to a study performed by the Canadian Dalhousie University in cooperation with Bedrocan on the genetic differences between the two types and their hybrids. In this study 149 Dutch cannabis samples were analysed, correlating the genotype and chemotype to their reported ancestries. Indica- and Sativa-labelled samples were not as distinct as sub species would be assumed to be, but the genetic differences between them do correlate to their terpene profile (resin fragrance), which could explain the variation between them. Results of this new study have been presented on the International Association for Cannabis as Medicine (IACM) congress in Cologne, Germany, September 2017.

There is perhaps no debate in the world of cannabis more contentious than that of species. The genus Cannabis sativa L. is the only official species, but the terms ‘Sativa’, ‘Indica’ and ‘Hybrid’ have been widely adopted by cannabis breeders and cultivators as a way of advertising their product’s effects, aromas or purported pedigree. The degree to which these labels correspond to their actual ancestry, however, is dubious, and how this informal classification scheme relates to genotype or phenotype has been largely unexplored.

In the study an analysis of 149 cannabis samples was performed, correlating the genotype and chemotype (based on terpene and cannabinoid content of the flowers) to their reported ‘ancestry’.  The researchers then compared the reported labels to new scales they generated by reclassifying the samples based on their genetic and chemical similarity.

The Indica/Sativa classification of Dutch cannabis does not correspond to distinct genetic lineages or to cannabinoid type, but there are genetic and chemical similarities that explain the variation between the groups. Deconvolution of the Indica-Sativa ancestry showed a strong relationship between the chemical and genetic profiles, suggesting that the distinct terpene contents of the types are heritable and important to the identity of these two groups. It is likely that strains are classified by their distinct aromas, and not their lineages, which has a direct impact on the genetics of this crop.

Bedrocan, worldwide producer of standardised medicinal cannabis, is already working on the terpene profiles that are associated with the current Bedrocan products. Hugo Maassen, head of the phyto engineering department at Bedrocan: “This study shows that the Indica/Sativa differences could be largely based on terpene content, which instead of the current Indica/Sativa labelling might require for more insight in the terpene profiles related to the Bedrocan products available for patient use.”

The terpene profiles of the Bedrocan products are expected to be announced in the near future.

Bedrocan now available in Australia

Used by patients in the Netherlands since 2003, Bedrocan® standardised cannabis flos is now available for patients in Australia. This includes the same cannabis flos currently used in the NSW palliative care clinical trial.

Administered by vaporization, the consistent chemical profile of the flos better allows doctors to monitor dosage, condition progress, and reduce the risk of overdosing and unwanted side effects.

Being free of microbial contaminants (molds, fungi, and bacteria), pesticides, and heavy metals, Bedrocan cannabis flos is safe for vaporization and inhalation into the lungs. These qualities are especially important for people with weakened immune systems.

The recently published Prescribing Bedrocan provides information to assist health professionals on dosing, safety, and side effects. Our portal now allows doctors to report adverse events online.

Novachem, a specialist import and distribution agent, will supply flos and vaporization technology to licensed pharmacies in Australia.

Bedrocan International visit to Australia and New Zealand

A lot has happened in Australia and New Zealand to improve patient access to cannabis-based medicines. In this region, Bedrocan maintains is mission – to bridge the gap between patients need for cannabis and the requirements of modern medicines.

Reaching out to Oceania

Bedrocan have built strong academic and private partnerships across the globe. Our experienced international team, networks and collaborations are being strengthened here in Australia and New Zealand. Our international team are set to meet with leading researchers and practitioners who seek a better understanding of medicinal properties, the medicines safe and effective use, and education without commercial bias.

Steadfast, not a start-up

Bedrocan Australia draws on our 20+ years’ experience and global network. As the world’s most experienced producer of legal medicinal cannabis, our intention has always been for cannabis flos to achieve official medicine registration.

The first step is good manufacturing practice (GMP). Achieving a major industry milestone, Bedrocan is the only cannabis cultivator with end-to-end GMP. This guarantees seamless GMP production of finished dose forms – just like any other medicine.

Bedrocan’s founders – Tjalling Erkelens and Wupke Bruining – will be in Australia and New Zealand during late June and early July 2017.

LUMC starts clinical study on fibromyalgia and cannabis

Can herbal cannabis be used to treat fibromyalgia symptoms that are not properly managed with standard therapy?

This year marks the start of a worldwide series of double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trials with standardised, pharmaceutical grade medicinal cannabis. The first trial is being conducted in Leiden, The Netherlands, where prof. dr. Albert Dahan of the department of Anesthesiology of the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC) is leading a study on the effects of inhaled medicinal cannabis on fibromyalgia symptoms.

Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterised by widespread musculoskeletal pain and sensitivity to touch. These symptoms are frequently accompanied by chronic fatigue, sleep disturbance, and emotional changes. It is estimated that around 3 to 5 percent of the general population is affected by this disease. Interestingly and for unknown reasons, the majority (80 to 90 %) of patients diagnosed with this condition are women.

Commonly used pharmacologic treatments for fibromyalgia include the central nervous system depressant pregabalin (Lyrica®) and the selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor duloxetine (Cymbalta®), both of which have received regulatory approval in multiple countries for the treatment of this disorder. However, while these medicines have been shown in clinical trials to be effective and relatively safe, not all patients have responded to treatment. In addition, in some patients they have been found to produce a variety of side-effects, including dizziness, drowsiness, or emotional changes which may lead to depression or even, in severe cases, suicidal thoughts.

Cannabis as an alternative treatment

Research shows that cannabinoids – the active compounds present in the cannabis plant – can have a beneficial effect on fibromyalgia symptoms by reducing pain and improving sleep quality. Although cannabis has not been established as an approved medicine for this medical condition, surveys indicate that fibromyalgia patients already self-medicate using cannabis. Moreover, some patients have reported cannabis to produce fewer side-effects than the available conventional treatments and, most importantly, to be effective.

Clinical study

Bedrocan International – licensor for production of standardised, pharmaceutical-grade medicinal cannabis – hypothesises that herbal cannabis can be used to treat fibromyalgia symptoms that are not properly managed with standard therapy. For that reason, the LUMC is conducting a study that evaluates how the symptoms of fibromyalgia are affected by the two major cannabinoids (the active pharmaceutical ingredients) of the cannabis plant: delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Specifically, a group of patients is being administered these two compounds in the form of vaporized herbal cannabis. The three different investigated drug products are Bedrocan®, Bediol® and Bedrolite®, which are standardised medicinal cannabis varieties that are legally available in The Netherlands. During the study, patients are being subjected to different established measurements and tests that will provide information about the efficacy of the medication in reducing both the physical, as well as cognitive and affective, symptoms of fibromyalgia. It is hoped that the obtained information will push standardised medicinal cannabis forward as a possible alternative treatment for fibromyalgia, particularly for patients who do not respond, or do not respond sufficiently, to existing treatments.

Bedrocan becomes world’s first GMP producer

Following a rigorous inspection by the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate, Bedrocan in the Netherlands has become the world’s first producer of medicinal cannabis to be compliant with the European Medicines Agency’s good manufacturing practice (GMP) standards. This is the first time a medicinal cannabis producer has reached such a high level of compliance. Bedrocan’s production facilities in Canada and the Czech Republic are expected to become fully compliant next year.

GMP is the highest standard a medicine manufacturer must meet in its production process. Bedrocan’s GMP status is a guarantee of the highest quality in both its cultivation and packaging process.

Tjalling Erkelens, Chairman of Bedrocan International, said: “This is a significant recognition. We have always aimed to meet the highest pharmaceutical standards. Now our way of working is officially recognised by the authorities.”

Since 2003, Bedrocan has produced standardised medicinal cannabis as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). It is the only company in the world to produce cannabis flos (the whole, dried flower) with a constant composition of cannabinoids and terpenes.

Bedrocan’s Dutch-made medicinal cannabis supplies patients and researchers in the Netherlands, Germany, Finland, Israel, Italy, Macedonia and Poland. In Australia it is used in Australia’s first clinical trial of vaporized cannabis flower bud.

Perry Davidson, CEO and founder of Israel’s Syqe Medical, which incorporates Bedrocan’s medicinal cannabis in its metered-dose inhaler said: “Syqe Medical has developed the world’s first inhaler that delivers medicinal cannabis with the level of precision of traditional medicines. A key factor in our ability to provide a pharmaceutical-grade solution is Bedrocan’s standardised product and uncompromising quality. The GMP compliance achieved by Bedrocan marks a major leap forward for medicinal cannabis, and its acceptance as a mainstream treatment by the medical community.”

In Canada and the Czech Republic, Bedrocan’s unique production methods are licensed to exclusive partners.

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