The importance of standardising the complete chemical composition of the plant is supported by various scientific studies. Below is a list of a number of studies into other substances in the cannabis plant and the entourage effect they cause:
- From Cultivar to Chemovar II—A Metabolomics Approach to Cannabis Classification
The study considered the ‘cultural’ designation of cannabis varieties, how to distinguish them in terms of effect and how they can be separated chemically and scientifically. The chemical difference is expressed in THC and CDB values, but also in other cannabinoids and terpenoids. This means that clinical research and anecdotal evidence could be used to study the various therapeutic effects of cannabis and/or certain varieties of cannabis could be prescribed to patients on the basis of the complete chemical profile.
- Taming THC: Potential Cannabis Synergy and Phytocannabinoid-Terpenoid Entourage Effects
This study introduces the ‘entourage effect’, which assumes interaction between cannabinoids and terpenes. This interaction may lead to positive effects regarding treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fungal and bacterial infections. Unique therapeutic properties are ascribed to terpenes, the odour and flavour substances in cannabis.
- Terpenes and Derivatives as a New Perspective for Pain Treatment: A Patent Review
This study deals with the role of terpenes in pain relief and is particularly focused on the role those terpenes could play in developing new analgesics.
- Synergy Between Cannabidiol, Cannabidiolic Acid, and Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the Regulation of Emesis in the Suncus Murinus (House Musk Shrew)
This study demonstrated that a combination of THC, CBD, and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid) produced better control of vomiting and fewer side effects. This combination was administered to shrews. These effects are also expected to occur in humans.
- Beyond Cannabis: Plants and The Endocannabinoid System
Not just the substances in cannabis have an effect on the endocannabidoid system. This article deals with a number of other plants that could produce similar effects. It also deals more in-depth with the ‘entourage effect’.
- Cannabis Pharmacology: The Usual Suspects and a Few Promising Leads
This article aims to answer the question as to the synergy between cannabinoids and terpenes in the therapeutic treatment of pain, psychiatric complaints, cancer and various other disorders. It also considers the therapeutic effects of substances in cannabis roots, leaves and seeds.
- Cannabis Constituent Synergy in a Mouse Neuropathic Pain Model
This animal study demonstrated that CBD strengthens the pain-killing power of THC during the treatment of neuropathic pain. The results suggest that a combined low dose of THC and CBD is the best option for dealing with neuropathic pain.
- Single and Combined Effects of Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol in a Mouse Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain
This study in mice demonstrated that really small doses of CBD or THC – administered separately – do not have an effect on reducing neuropathic pain caused by chemotherapy. However, when THC and CBD are administered in combination, these two substances have a synergetic effect and can be effective in dealing with pain.
- Appraising the “Entourage Effect”: Antitumor Action of a Pure Cannabinoid Versus a Botanical Drug Preparation in Preclinical Models of Breast Cancer
This animal study demonstrated that a full extract of cannabis has a better effect on treating tumours (breast cancer) than pure THC.
- The Case for the Entourage Effect and Conventional Breeding of Clinical Cannabis: No “Strain,” No Gain
This article proposes to stop categorising cannabis varieties by strains and to categorise them by chemical properties (‘chemovars’) instead. Furthermore, according to this article it is assumed that the combination of substances has a better therapeutic effect than the active substances alone – the ‘entourage effect’.
- An Experimental Randomized Study on the Analgesic Effects of Pharmaceutical-Grade Cannabis in Chronic Pain Patients With Fibromyalgia
This clinical study demonstrated that administering a combination of THC and CBD demonstrated a synergetic effect in patients, whereby the CBD increased the amount of THC in the bloodstream.